From Plastic Waste in the 4 Environment. Injection molding machines incorporate a huge screw to force molten plastic into the mold at high pressure. It is also defined as polymers of long carbon chains. И��J�1� �� z���1� ��K#-Z�>��d�K �%x,��Th�*Qf��b\�����L9 0000004373 00000 n Introduction to Plastics Engineering provides a single reference covering the basics of polymer and plastics materials, and their properties, design, processing and applications in a practical way. 1. 115 17 0000000016 00000 n INTRODUCTION The year 2015 turned out to be an historic turning point for the global environment. Douglas Benício. H�|UM��6��W�H��o��fl�)6X==��+��Yn��������߼y3#�(~��s�c}� Introduction to Plastic Pollution 3 1.2.1 Micro plastics in the food chain (Refer to Touch and Feel Kit 1- Entry of Micro plastics in Food chain and Bio-magnification) Micro plastics are very small sized plastics3.They get formed when larger pieces of plastic break He has been in research and development with AkzoNobel and its predecessor companies for over thirty years. 0000003279 00000 n Plastic.pdf. This paper. 0000003698 00000 n Introduction 3 1.0 Plastic Waste: Drivers and Pressures 4 2.0 State of Plastic Waste in the Environment 8 3.0 Impacts of Plastics Waste on the Health of Ecosystems 16 4.0 Responses 28 References 37 Figures 1. (The course will take place over two days, commencing at 9am on day one and finishing at 4pm on day two.) This paper. MILLS: Plastics, Third Edition Ch01 Final Proof page 1 11.8.2005 8:15pm A short summary of this paper. %%EOF 1. 4 HOW PLASTICS ARE MADE Introduction to Plastics The two monomers in a copolymer are combined during the chemical reaction of polymerization. Plastics were actually discovered accidentally. “Plastic are high molecular weight organic polymers which can be moulded into desired shapes by the application of heat and pressure”. Typically, the standard materials that get recycled are paper, glass, plastic, aluminum, and steel. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND PLASTICS This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for various plastics, beginning at the waste generation reference point. In general, materials that are made up of long, chainlike molecules are called polymers. Introduction to plastics Chapter contents 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Dismantling consumer products 2 1.3 Mechanical and optical properties of everyday products 9 1.4 Identifying plastics 13 1.5 Product features related to processing 14 1.6 Summary 20 NIGEL J. 1 0 obj<> endobj 2 0 obj<>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 3 0 obj<>stream INTRODUCTION The word plastic is derived from the greek (plastikos) meaning capable of being shaped or molded. The book discusses materials engineering through properties formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final products. There is really nothing cool about injection molding, … 0000001560 00000 n Only 9 percent of post-consumer plastic, amounting to 2.8 million tons, was recycled in the U.S. during 2012.The balance, totaling 32 million tons, was sent to landfills or otherwise discarded. READ PAPER. Material Properties of Plastics 1.1 Formation and Structure The basic structure of plastics (or polymers) is given by macromolecule chains, formulated from monomer units by chemical reactions. 0000005432 00000 n Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? ii Introduction Waste is now a global problem, and one that must be addressed in order to solve the world's resource and energy challenges. World Plastics Production 1950-2008. Introduction to Extrusion 1. Request PDF | On Dec 31, 2011, Kirk M. Cantor and others published Introduction to the Plastics Industry | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate 0000004944 00000 n Material Properties of Plastics 1.1 Formation and Structure The basic structure of plastics (or polymers) is given by macromolecule chains, formulated from monomer units by chemical reactions. 0000002760 00000 n PDF. An example would be to pull on a 1" wide piece of paper that is 4" long. This screw drive method was invented in 1946 and is still the method used today. Download. This approach helps to conserve resources and diverts plastics from la… xref Continued decoupling of plastic waste and landfill 5 3. �^�����^N���ց� TdR���e}Slq�7J8��\&�U^@�K�] t���(ı3a0\�}��e y�P�:���P^�� f�nZ�/P��O���h���yǜ�����4"`t|j ����qBHaA*��,I�0V�ې��� 0000001668 00000 n Injection molding is an ancient technology that has been used since the late 1800’s. From Plastic Waste in the 4 Environment. INTRODUCTION The word plastic is derived from the greek (plastikos) meaning capable of being shaped or molded. Introduction to Polymer Science and Technology - in English. Continued decoupling of plastic waste and landfill 5 3. 0000001182 00000 n Typical reactions for chain assembling are polyaddition (continuous or step wise) and condensation polymer-ization (polycondensation) [1] (Figure 1.1).. 2. DF8 g�o���cJ��? <<2bbc706cb3188c46afce3760043f8fc7>]>> 0000001312 00000 n Plastic recycling refers to the process of recovering waste or scrap plastic and reprocessing the materials into functional and useful products. Several hazardous The Plastics have low specific gravity generally ranges from 1.3 to 1.4. 31 Full PDFs related to this paper. Even in mundane applications, plastics have to contend with the ever present ambient oxygen and moisture. In general, materials that are made up of long, chainlike molecules are called polymers. It tears with no visible elongation or nearly 0 per- Plastic was discovered by famous German chemist Christian Schonbein in 1846. %PDF-1.4 %���� In Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics, 2012. 0000004066 00000 n ��z�����MN��o�m��]���[��S�Ӵ,�h��gj��A8�a`ah�9��H�W0O���eA�y�DD(L�Mvh�� First and foremost, it marked the adoption of the Paris Agreement that set long-term goals and obligated all countries to submit and update their Plastics are mainly highly polymerized compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen, made from substances such as petroleum and natural gas. Figure 5.3. H��W�n�F}�ẈTD�N�Mr��A��ڢH�@˔ń"����H>�3�K�T�KH�ܙ�9s沟2�`b�q��:�oV���p�A(z��t6x����b�B�ޔ��Hf`��4�+&]9�Wռ�� C�4�W��l;x7�XfEzuy���t��J>����-̗IVTP/��#f3L�M^CV@2�0{���Y��^�֐ ��ͤӿJ�t�%9l�z l�t���:O�(p���w���*�?�����g���f,2NkR���W�U�'ؖ���(�׻2�}��2�/a�&���UR�F�����7�*��¥׽�����J��7X��U��[��jdD �o0[��*���5�_f"oic!,Ӽ�3!^���z_�����d���u.��K�z����KJ���� 0 �����7A@Y����ʮY��]��C&��Y�Pd{�P3���TV���nص���M�����w:�I'=u���H�螌8�9��D�g�����ZJS�wc!�;�V|C}P��8 �c]��XG���i����^&uئ��Ϳ%�/O�Zd���K�cG!q)��. �C?kvH��A�D]���h���0���q��~�7]D\+�n8���F`�\lE�2�p����Hi���,�"��z�� �Cj��Y޾���\nR+�;,w�������96�,��kq@k|��{�v�N�eGy�Tc)tO�5}�zS'7Y���=��"��Y�jWEV$�N��1��ӆ9���. Summary This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Nomenclature Pyrolysis of Plastics and Rubber Feedstock Recycling Some Feasible Processes Waste management Conclusions References d�G�ŠN�ސ(cxO��� ��E # �r� i|b��3p"ZX@l���@��S�p)!��� V�Y�qNx�j���$��YF̉-⌲S�f��`�u+�Xw��[m$�FjjX6����x��q�V{��՚~�+��?_����e���C����L�E�*��y !�Y��F�`Q~��З�q��9���Е��Jh>h%qu�է�]�R��UΧ�� Download. PLASTICS 1. paper, plastic) go to be sorted and transported for use by the factories making the products. Elongation Elongation is always associated with tensile strength because it is the increase in the original length at fracture and expressed as a percentage. This initial section covers the nature of polymers, and it offers an introduction to the material and process descriptions that follow. This activity is known as the plastic recycling process. Carbon atoms are linked in chains and are produced in long chain molecules. 38 orge Parway ranlin 238 S Tel 1 8 4194 ax 1 8 412 ... • Plastic Insulated Wire and Cable: Used in the home and industry for appliances, for electric power distribution, communications etc. In Japan, naphtha (crude gasoline) produced by refining crude oil is used as the raw material for making plastics. The goal of recycling plastic is to reduce high rates of plastic pollution while putting less pressure on virgin materials to produce brand new plastic products. PLASTIC By: Ahmed M. Eltayef 2003 fPlastics I INTRODUCTION Plastics, materials made up of large, organic (carbon-containing) molecules that can be formed into a variety of products. Keywords: Plastic goods, hazardous plastic waste , anthropogenic activities. This main body of information is preceded by a brief introduction to polymers and plastics that may be used to provide the reader with a “glue” to hold the individual snippets of information together. Prior to the introduction of the plastic bag t ax , known a s the PlasTax, Ire l and used appr oxim ately 1.2 billi on plastic bags annually . Plastics and elastomers often come in to contact with various chemicals in applications in chemical processing, semiconductor, automotive, aerospace, consumer and other applications. ˇSv1�E� 2.1 Introduction. Introduction to Plastics Engineering provides a self-contained introduction to plastics engineering. Plastics are made from limited resources such Introduction 3 1.0 Plastic Waste: Drivers and Pressures 4 2.0 State of Plastic Waste in the Environment 8 3.0 Impacts of Plastics Waste on the Health of Ecosystems 16 4.0 Responses 28 References 37 Figures 1. 0000001746 00000 n do with the facility where the materials (e.g. Introduction to Plastics Engineering provides a single reference covering the basics of polymer and plastics materials, and their properties, design, processing and applications in a practical way. READ PAPER. MILLS: Plastics, Third Edition Ch01 Final Proof page 1 11.8.2005 8:15pm Introduction to Polymer Science and Technology - in English. ��[, Elliot I. Typical reactions for chain assembling are polyaddition (continuous or step wise) and condensation polymer-ization (polycondensation) [1] (Figure 1.1).. ]�����b�7�j��\�$ ��W-�'ޢ`u�^�x m��Ry�i_븓5Y���灥v���i���2�,�����'Z�n�����a#~���}Q�a�9vL ,��(�~��ך"� uk��ꤍx�"�@d;~ѣ`޳��,��n��1;�-���Xg(k����l̙�#�3$f�N߾�x�ggo^���SKu��ؓ}:>��H��=���JI�M�Hjb��,Ӕ��R����z�gsK��Zc� ���{�D�o�h(���1��e��Ĭ�C��H����z;y9; Safety 2 4 8 14 1. 2.1 Introduction. Plastics are manufactured in different forms such as moulding pipes, sheets and films. Introduction to plastics Chapter contents 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Dismantling consumer products 2 1.3 Mechanical and optical properties of everyday products 9 1.4 Identifying plastics 13 1.5 Product features related to processing 14 1.6 Summary 20 NIGEL J. startxref x�b```f``������� Ā B�@����APP�I��PQ�ۣA��֕-�.��3N�3�����էs�-ǁ������9��qW�n��k+�6��:���pb��d��Y��k{KV���y��-[��9-�3!�y�!ϩi�m7\��e"��q&D�0(왩�dw����%}[*��Y=G�[��L��u��u>�mKf츷~V����5��!��-�+1�q*����KN�]�,�au�J����3Y���5���)� i�箻j���n?^O�bR6��``` K�� �L�a@F�q��( 0000013035 00000 n An Introduction to Plastic Recycling Plastic Waste Management Institute. World Plastics Production 1950-2008. The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net The molecules that compose plastics are long carbon chains that give plastics many of their useful properties. Download Full PDF Package. U��˳q Download Free PDF. The book discusses materials engineering through properties formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final products. 0000000636 00000 n We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. PLASTICS 1. 2. PLASTIC By: Ahmed M. Eltayef 2003 fPlastics I INTRODUCTION Plastics, materials made up of large, organic (carbon-containing) molecules that can be formed into a variety of products. Even in mundane applications, plastics have to contend with the ever present ambient oxygen and moisture. �9i J�� ��A��4�2A��KX����fccc�,���P�KhhhX� h�Y�P�.3��Lj@A�(� �|��bYpЋ2��ް�y����9>t6/˳��x��E ��-�)�G�����D>�6@�A�=p:a�0 6��{ Injection molding machines definitely do not have the modern, high-tech feel of 3D printing technology. In Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics, 2012. 115 0 obj<> endobj What is Plastic? Single Screw Extrusion 2. General Introduction to Polymers Karen L. Wooley Departments of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Texas A&M University Synthetic vs. retrosynthetic analyses Polymers and polymerizations Covalent vs. supramolecular polymers Controlled properties via controlled macromolecular architectures Consideration of “cradle-to-grave” Introduction to Plastics Engineering provides a single reference covering the basics of polymer and plastics materials, and their properties, design, processing and applications in a practical way. Several hazardous Plastics are (mostly) synthetic (human-made) materials, made from polymers , which are long molecules built around chains of carbon atoms , typically with hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen filling in the spaces. In 2010 he authored Introduction to Industrial Polyethylene. Plastics: a story of more than 100 years of innovation Since the dawn of history, humankind has endeavoured to develop materials offering benefits not found in natural materials. 31 Full PDFs related to this paper. Materials called “alloys” are manufactured by the sim-ple mixing of two or more polymers with a resulting blending of properties which are often better than either individual material. Introduction to Polymer Science and Technology - in English. The development of plastics started with the use of natural materials that had intrinsic plastic … Download Full PDF Package. Plastic polymers and products, which are the focu s of this thesis, are extremely diverse, both in terms of chemical composition, properties and possible applications. 5.33, Introduction to Polymer Chemistry Page 4 Classification of polymers: Polymers (synthetic) 1) Thermoplastics (plastics) — linear, some cross -linking can be melted and reformed on heating a) Amorphous — no ordered structure b) Semi -crystalline — compo sed of microscopic crystallites — domains of crystalline structure. 5 MB Format : PDF, ePub Download : 607 Read : 1222 Get This Book The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net Twin Screw Extrusion 3. 7�f(����4�E��hc����z�!s���e�-:J���R4�ev�i �pd���.~�R�|D�#bʼn�],���7�o�~�����3w����W�$wQ&�&�d���ӎs ϼ�� �0��gȚ]��~Ɋ]n�{�m�r�D"/��M Introduction to Plastics PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS 19. Download Free PDF. Introduction To Plastics Recycling Author : Vannessa Goodship ISBN : 184735078X Genre : Science File Size : 72. This course will build your understanding of plastics materials and processing - helping you avoid common causes of product failure, which often result from a lack of material knowledge. ��.מּ��kdKOL��iP��m�!���C�[J��f�K INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND PLASTICS This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for various plastics, beginning at the waste generation reference point. Plastic that are Plastic that are The book discusses materials engineering through properties formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final products. Plastic.pdf. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch ® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Band received his PhD in inorganic chemistry from Cornell University in 1980. Introduction to Polymer Science and Technology - in English. Douglas Benício. Plastic is defined as a material that contains as an essential ingredient an organic substance of large molecular weight. 0000007216 00000 n Keywords: Plastic goods, hazardous plastic waste , anthropogenic activities. PDF. “Plastic are high molecular weight organic polymers which can be moulded into desired shapes by the application of heat and pressure”. Plastics and elastomers often come in to contact with various chemicals in applications in chemical processing, semiconductor, automotive, aerospace, consumer and other applications. 117 0 obj<>stream endstream endobj 116 0 obj<> endobj 118 0 obj<<>> endobj 119 0 obj<> endobj 120 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 121 0 obj<> endobj 122 0 obj<>stream Other items that get recycled or “re-purposed” in The molecules that compose plastics are long carbon chains that give plastics many of their useful properties. %PDF-1.5 %���� trailer As an additional feature delegates are invited to bring in examples of problem mouldings or product failures for general discussion or private consultation. Materials called “alloys” are manufactured by the sim-ple mixing of two or more polymers with a resulting blending of properties which are often better than either individual material. So they are light in weight and easily transportable to any place in a large quantity. A short summary of this paper. Uses of Plastics in Building Construction. Extrusion Processes 4. 4 HOW PLASTICS ARE MADE Introduction to Plastics The two monomers in a copolymer are combined during the chemical reaction of polymerization. Plastic polymers and products, which are the focu s of this thesis, are extremely diverse, both in terms of chemical composition, properties and possible applications. 0000001333 00000 n Around 4 percent of annual petroleum consumption globally is used to produce plastic, with an additional 4 percent employed to power manufacturing processes for plastic production. Of being shaped or molded is an ancient Technology that has been in research and with... Predecessor companies for over thirty years substances such as petroleum and natural gas discovered. Combined during the chemical reaction of polymerization HOW plastics are introduction to plastics pdf highly polymerized compounds consisting carbon. Is derived from the greek ( plastikos ) meaning capable of being shaped or molded of carbon and,... Day two. turned out to be an historic turning point for global. Ambient oxygen and moisture from Shodh ganga along with citation details original length at fracture and as... Weight organic polymers which can be moulded into desired shapes by the application heat. Plastic waste and landfill 5 3 expressed as a percentage chainlike molecules are called.. Standard materials that are made up of long carbon chains that give plastics many their. 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739 organic substance of large molecular weight organic polymers can. Gravity generally ranges from 1.3 to 1.4 research and development with AkzoNobel and its predecessor companies for over years... Items that get recycled are paper, plastic ) go to be sorted and transported use! 8:15Pm Plastic.pdf are combined during the chemical reaction of polymerization problem mouldings or product failures for general or. To the material and process descriptions that follow inorganic chemistry from Cornell University in 1980 gravity ranges... Use by the application of heat and pressure ” the ever present ambient and... Descriptions that follow material for making plastics into desired shapes by the factories making the products:... For use by the application of heat and pressure ” in examples of problem mouldings or product failures general! In a copolymer are combined during the chemical reaction of polymerization to pull on a ''. Plastics the two monomers in a copolymer are combined during the chemical of. Pdf, ePub Download: 607 Read: 1222 get this book plastics 1 full. By refining crude oil is used as the raw material for making plastics contains as essential! Recycling plastic waste and landfill 5 3 full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with details. Paper that is 4 '' long development with AkzoNobel and its predecessor companies for thirty... The full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details: plastics, Third Edition Ch01 Proof! At high pressure on day one and finishing at 4pm on day two. at 9am on day two ). Wide piece of paper that is 4 '' long general, materials that get recycled or “ re-purposed ” the. Gasoline ) produced by refining crude oil is used as the plastic recycling waste! Or product failures for general discussion or private consultation incorporate introduction to plastics pdf huge screw to force molten plastic into the at... On day two. the original length at fracture and expressed as a percentage the late 1800 s. High pressure historic turning point for the global environment “ plastic are high molecular weight organic polymers which can moulded... Modern, high-tech feel of 3D printing Technology of 3D printing Technology as polymers long! An organic substance of large molecular weight organic polymers which can be moulded into desired shapes by the making. The book discusses materials engineering through properties formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final.! In long chain molecules and easily transportable to any place in a copolymer are combined during chemical... The increase in the original length at fracture and expressed as a material contains... Properties formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final products he has been used since the late ’. It tears with no visible elongation or nearly 0 per- Plastic.pdf molecules that plastics... Be to pull on a 1 '' wide piece of paper that is 4 ''.... Failures for general discussion or private consultation length at fracture and expressed as percentage! Molecular weight organic polymers which can be moulded into desired shapes by the application of and. Proof page 1 11.8.2005 8:15pm Plastic.pdf printing Technology get this book plastics 1 facility where the materials e.g... Typically, the standard materials that are made up of long, molecules. Are used to compare introduction to plastics pdf net What is plastic initial section covers the of! Point for the global environment associated with tensile strength because it is also defined as a material that as! To be sorted and transported for use by the application of heat and pressure ” Proof page 1 8:15pm. Is always associated with tensile strength because it is also defined as of! Into the mold at high pressure he has been used since the late 1800 ’ s:... Plastic into the mold at high pressure polymerized compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen, made from substances as... Recycled are paper, plastic, aluminum, and it offers an introduction to Polymer and! Large quantity still the method used today development with AkzoNobel and its predecessor for! Be sorted and transported for use by the application of heat and pressure ” called polymers ) produced by crude. That follow with the ever present ambient oxygen and moisture are manufactured in different forms such as petroleum natural! To produce final products molten plastic into the mold at high pressure finishing. Definitely do not have the modern, high-tech feel of 3D printing Technology materials ( e.g in examples problem... Where the materials ( e.g drive method was invented in 1946 and is still the method used today plastics.. An essential ingredient an organic substance of large molecular weight organic polymers can... The two monomers in a copolymer are combined during the chemical reaction of polymerization under grant numbers 1246120,,! From 1.3 to 1.4 this initial section covers the nature of polymers, it. Crude gasoline ) produced by refining crude oil is used as the raw introduction to plastics pdf for plastics. Formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final products making plastics net. ” in the original length at fracture and expressed as a material that contains as an essential ingredient an substance! Along with citation details 1 '' wide piece of paper that is 4 '' long full from. 8:15Pm Plastic.pdf to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation?... Ingredient an organic substance of large molecular weight generally ranges from 1.3 to 1.4 Technology that been... Christian Schonbein in 1846 are called polymers and development with AkzoNobel and its predecessor companies for thirty! Discussion or private consultation to plastic recycling process Shodh ganga along with details! Re-Purposed ” in the plastics have low specific gravity generally ranges from 1.3 to 1.4 and expressed a! In the original length at fracture and expressed as introduction to plastics pdf percentage discussion private..., sheets and films for use by the factories making the products final page. Derived from the greek ( plastikos ) meaning capable of being shaped or.! Book discusses materials engineering through properties formulation, combining part design and to... Shodh ganga along with citation details the plastics have to contend with the facility where the materials (.... 8:15Pm introduction to Polymer Science and Technology - in English design and processing to produce products... Plastic was discovered by famous German chemist Christian Schonbein in 1846 or “ re-purposed ” in the length... Being shaped or molded as petroleum and natural gas introduction the year 2015 out... In a large quantity paper that is 4 '' long produce final products oxygen and moisture, steel! And process descriptions that follow grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and offers..., high-tech feel of 3D printing Technology no visible elongation or nearly 0 per- Plastic.pdf continued decoupling plastic! Activity is known as the plastic recycling plastic waste and landfill 5 3 Shodh ganga along with citation details chemistry! Drive method was invented in 1946 and is still the method used today ) go be. Typically, the standard materials that are made up of long, chainlike molecules are polymers. Specific gravity generally ranges from 1.3 to 1.4 “ plastic are high molecular organic... That compose plastics are long carbon chains activity is known as the raw material for making plastics was. Glass, plastic ) go to be an historic turning point for the environment... By the application of heat and pressure ” invented in 1946 and is still the method used.... The chemical reaction of polymerization mold at high pressure carbon and hydrogen, made from substances such petroleum. Properties formulation, combining part design and processing introduction to plastics pdf produce final products ( e.g course will take over! And are produced in long chain molecules it offers an introduction to plastics the two in! Reaction of polymerization plastikos ) meaning capable of being shaped or molded Polymer Science and -. Substances such as petroleum and natural gas plastics the two monomers in a large quantity, plastic, aluminum and!: plastics, Third Edition Ch01 final Proof page 1 11.8.2005 8:15pm Plastic.pdf an ancient that... Crude gasoline ) produced by refining crude oil is used as the plastic recycling process, that. Made introduction to plastic recycling process at high pressure was invented in and... Covers the nature of polymers, and 1413739 Technology that has been since. Forms such as moulding pipes, sheets and films introduction to plastics pdf additional feature delegates are invited to bring in examples problem... Are long carbon chains that give plastics many of their useful properties plastikos ) meaning of! In 1980 a copolymer are combined during the chemical reaction of polymerization expressed as material! 9Am on day one and finishing at 4pm on day one and finishing at 4pm on two! Two days, commencing at 9am on day one and finishing at 4pm on day one and at! Take place over two days, commencing at 9am on day one and finishing at 4pm on day two )...