This does not mean that the instruments are effective of course, and those countries at greater risk should pay careful attention to threats from IAS. Understanding the spread and impact of exotic geckos in the greater Caribbean region. California, for example, spends $82 million each year on control, monitoring and outreach for invasive plants alone, according to a 2008 survey. Correspondence: Anna J. Turbelin, Department of Geography, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UK. What you should do: To comply with the law and prevent the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species, boaters should: CLEAN boats, trailers and equipment. (2016) found that the most recurrent pathways for IAS were escapees from horticulture and pet aquaria. Although countries are concerned about the introduction and spread of IAS within their legal boundaries, not as much attention is given by originating countries to preventing the egress of species, unless the species has known public health impacts. DRAIN live wells, bilges and all water - pull all drain plugs. The number of native species invasive elsewhere varies across countries (Fig. Anna J. Turbelin is a doctoral student at King's College London, UK, funded by a Natural Environment Research Council Studentship. 7700 East First Place This contrasts with many Western European countries with a negative to zero asymmetry index 5b). While this causes an increase in water clarity due to filter feeding, it also creates ideal conditions for algae growth. As an example, Rattus rattus is classified as an IAS in 59 countries but is recorded as native in China. (Fig. They can impede boaters and swimmers, decrease property value, clog waterways, degrade native ecosystems and impact tourism and recreational fishing. This database was thus considered to be the most comprehensive available, having both ease of access and good search functionality (e.g. 5b) seems largely missing across parts of Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and the African continent. Further analysis of the data informing Figs S2–S5 shows that 46% of recorded invasive plants may have been intentionally introduced through horticulture and the nursery trade and 21% through agriculture. See additional information for Figs. Economic use of plants is key to their naturalization success. Factors associated with alien plant richness, cover and composition differ in tropical island forests. Growing up to one foot per day, kudzu covers everything in its path—from grasses to mature trees. (2015) mapped the global exchange and accumulation of alien plants and Essl et al. As shown in Fig. S2–S5 on p.3 for more detailed information on the chord diagrams and for introduction pathway abbreviations. Alien futures: What is on the horizon for biological invasions?. Montana Invasive Species Invasive species include plants, animals, and microorganisms that are nonnative to our ecosystem and cause harm to natural and cultural resources, the economy, and human health. Species with ‘occurrence’ (or ‘distribution’ in the CABI ISC) listed as ‘recorded in error’, ‘absent’ or ‘eradicated’ were excluded. The emerald ash borer is the most destructive of the group. For example, the U.S. Measures the level of asymmetry within a country between the number of invasive species within the country and the number of native species invasive elsewhere, Number of international treaties subscribed to by each country, All residents irrespective of legal status or citizenship. Once an invasive species is introduced and becomes established, causing damage or crop losses, our normal IPM practices may prove ineffective. Just under 55% of the 243 countries (excluding overseas territories) have ‘exported’ 56 or more recorded species (i.e. The dominant pathway for species invasions was horticulture and the nursery trade, with 31% of the species introduced outside of their natural geographical range. Around 50% of IAS native from each region may be introduced elsewhere unintentionally. See additional information for Figs. Nonnative invasive species are overlooked in biological integrity assessments. . See Table S2 fo detailed information on the Relevance Score. However, after flooding in the 1990s, the carp escaped into the Mississippi River. Invasive species can dramatically alter local ecosystems by decreasing biodiversity, out-competing and displacing native plants and animals (which can compromise ecosystem health) and threatening endangered species. Figure 1(a) shows the number of IAS per country (SInv) based on the GISD (2016) and CABI ISC (2016) databases. A positive [negative] Κ value indicates a country that has more [fewer] IAS than species native to that country that are invasive elsewhere. From the results of our searches described above, we (1) calculate an asymmetry index for IAS ingress/egress to a given country, and (2) map (visualize) the results of these and other IAS metrics. (2008) notes that two‐thirds of research efforts on the African continent are accounted for by South Africa. For instance, West Asia ‘exports’ a higher number than it ‘imports’ as opposed to Europe, which ‘imports’ more than it ‘exports’. As shown in Fig. Lists of harmful alien organisms: are the national regulations adapted to the global world? Global map of invasive alien species (IAS) asymmetry index, K, indicating the asymmetry between each country's ‘ingress/egress’ of IAS. Today, we recognize that invasive plants also harm lakes, streams, wetlands, and ecosystems. 4a) introduction of IAS with (after removing duplicates between geographical regions) 226 (15%) and 214 (14%), respectively, of 1517 species introduced globally. Their global impacts are substantial and costly (e.g. The species records used include local and country distribution, status and organism type. Country data are matched using ISO3 codes (ISO, 2016). Keywords used (including plural variants) were: ‘alien’, ‘invasive’, ‘exotic’, ‘non‐indigenous’, ‘non‐native’, ‘pest’ and ‘introduced species’. Results (including overseas territories) were Pimentel et al., 2005; Stohlgren & Schnase, 2006; Kettunen et al., 2009; Ricciardi et al., 2011), making species invasions an environmental issue of great global significance. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. This map depicts a global view of where national/sub‐national legislation/regulations (relevance score > 0) are in place and the differences in database input across countries; the USA for instance has one legal document, which has a Relevance Score of 3, recorded in ECOLEX despite having more legal instruments in part or entirely dedicated to IAS that are not in ECOLEX (2016). The total number of IAS recorded in the two databases is Shown are (a) NIT (number of international treaties mentioning IAS that each country is signatory to, including global and regional treaties for 1933 − 2015) and (b) map of the maximum relevance score for each country that has national/sub‐national regulations/legislation in place, relevant to IAS (1980 − 2015). State’s invasive species webinar series returns next month Michigan. These maps generally focus on a country, region or distribution of a specific type of organism, but there are, to our knowledge, none of the following: global visualizations of the current distribution of IAS in terms of the number of IAS per country, their countries of origin (native range), pathways of introduction and relevant policy responses. Additionally, in this legislative session, Michigan adopted the Asian Carp Protection Resolution (SR 22), which encourages the Chicago Area Waterway System Advisory Committee to consider a variety of options to protect the Great Lakes from Asian carp. Carp have systematically progressed north and can now be found in the Illinois River. The UK is the first EU Member State to develop and release biocontrol agents for invasive non-native plant species – Japanese knotweed and Himalayan balsam – and is funding similar efforts for other invasive non-native plants. 4(a/c) are highly similar; the main differences are in terms of number of species. This effort may be facilitated by a visualization of current patterns of invasion. Further data analysis indicates that between the seven global regions, after removing duplicate species, HORT has 465 unique IAS (31% of the 1517 species in our databases) introduced globally. Figure S5. Also known as the “vine that ate the South,” Kudzu is one of the most prolific invasive plant species in the world. International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research. Currently regulated by federal law and present in Maryland 3. HORT is the largest pathway for intentional (Fig. Although both databases are limited to some extent by geographical and taxonomic bias and incompleteness (Westphal et al., 2008; McGeoch et al., 2010), they are the databases best suited to our study as they provide freely accessible comprehensive data across all recorded taxonomic groups globally. Of the 1517 recorded IAS, 39% were introduced only intentionally, 26% only unintentionally and 22% both intentionally and unintentionally; 13% had no information available. For information about the species currently included on this list, click here. Invasive Asian carp are a threat to ecosystems throughout the U.S., consuming native vegetation, out-competing native fish, disrupting local ecosystems and introducing new pests and diseases. Figure S4. A 2009 study by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers noted that invasive mussels could cause losses of $22 million per year to the Lake Tahoe Region alone. Invasive species are species that are not native to Minnesota and cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Trade, including the nursery, pet and aquarium or live food trade, are the main pathway of intentional introductions. Non-native invasive species are a growing problem in the United States and South Carolina. 1) and 88% have Κ ` 0 (Fig. Policy responses towards IAS show an increasing desire from the international community to act on species invasions. With its overseas territories, France is signatory to regional treaties such as the Convention on Conservation of Nature in the South Pacific (1976) and the Plant Protection Agreement for the Asia and Pacific Region (1956). This website uses cookies to analyze traffic and for other purposes. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. 4(a) shows that the introduction pathway ‘Horticulture’ (HORT) has intentionally introduced 116 species in Europe. 1. Intentional introductions of fish through AQ vary from 47% of recorded invasive fish in North America to 81% in Africa. See the text for a detailed description of the chord diagram. We used data from three major global databases: GISD, ECOLEX and CABI ISC. Number of invasive alien species by introduction pathways from a geographical region using chord diagrams for intentional egress of: (a) plants, (b) arthropods, (c) fish, (d) mammals, (e) birds, and (f) reptiles. Our study supports previous research highlighting economic development, with its associated international trade and globalization, as key drivers of IAS introduction (Vilà & Pujadas 2001; Meyerson & Mooney, 2007; Westphal et al., 2008; Pyšek et al., 2010). The main differentiation between these six countries is in the number of treaties with regional scope. For instance, for South Africa Κ = 1.3 and there are more IAS recorded in South Africa than species native to South Africa that are invasive in other countries. Though the average lifespan of quagga and zebra mussels is only five years, each one will produce approximately 5 million eggs during this time. Invasion pathways at a crossroad: policy and research challenges for managing alien species introductions, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature), Technical support to EU strategy on invasive species (IAS) – assessment of the impacts of IAS in Europe and the EU (final module report for the European Commission), Global exchange and accumulation of non‐native plants, The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions, Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility, Invasive alien species in Southern Africa: national reports and directory of resources, Global indicators of biological invasion: species numbers, biodiversity impact and policy responses, Prioritizing species, pathways, and sites to achieve conservation targets for biological invasion, Invasive alien species in an era of globalization, The evolutionary impact of invasive species, NOBANIS (European Network on Invasive Alien Species), Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien‐invasive species in the United States, Geographical and taxonomic biases in invasion ecology, Disentangling the role of environmental and human pressures on biological invasions across Europe, Toward a global information system for invasive species. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The invasive native range (INR) for each IAS was also determined, when available; this refers to the native range (countries of origin) of each IAS based on information in the GISD and CABI ISC. Only international treaties, relevant national/sub‐national regulations and legislations (relevance score > 0) were considered for the data analysis; miscellaneous documents were rejected. Invasive plants displace native species that wildlife depend on for food. The virtual Upper Midwest Invasive Species Conference held in early November 2020 attracted more than 1,000 registrants in what they report is the largest crowd for an invasive species conference. We also thank two anonymous referees for providing helpful comments that improved earlier drafts of the manuscript. In the past few years, numerous states have adopted resolutions and bills to prevent the arrival of Asian carp. To combat invasive plants, Washington has a system of county weed boards and local weed districts, and laws that require landowners to control inv… the ability to search documents using keywords). Known to have significant economic impacts on agricultural ecosystems, public infrastructure or natural resources, including impa… International trade is increasing in Africa (ITC, 2012) and so the number of IAS is likely to grow, making this continent a priority for IAS research (see also Chenje & Mohamed‐Katerere, 2003; Macdonald et al., 2003). States are taking aim at fighting aquatic invasive species. An overview of non‐native species invasions in urban river corridors. Should biological invasions be managed as natural disasters? Clean, Drain, and Dry Your Boat and Gear Anglers and boaters are asked to be aware of the part they may play in the spread of invasive species and to take action to help stop their spread. 2. Genetic evidence illuminates the origin and global spread of the slug Deroceras invadens. The IAS with the greatest recorded international presence, per organism group, are listed in Table 3. Figure S2 shows that 407 (46%) and 188 (21%) of 886 unique terrestrial plants (Fig. LANSING, Mich. (WLNS) – … 4 depicts the possible number of IAS that ingress (egress) to (from) a geographical region intentionally (Fig. In addition to impacts on wildlife, the spread of invasive plants can degrade water quality, increase soil erosion, contribute to wildfires and reduce agricultural production. France is followed by the UK, the Netherlands and Germany each with 24, and Spain and Italy with 23. Similar in appearance, both zebra and quagga mussels are invading U.S. waters. Managing the Early Warning Systems of Invasive Species of Plants, Birds, and Mammals in Natural and Planted Pine Forests. (2015) mapped the main pathways of introduction for three types of organisms in Europe. States such as Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio have set aside money for education, research, rapid response, prevention and control. These trends may also be the result of taxonomic bias in recording (e.g. According to Executive Order 13112, which established the National Invasive Species Council in 1999, invasive species are “non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.” Invasive species can be plants, animals or other organisms, such as microbes, which are introduced and spread either intentionally or unintentionally. Find out more . As a global response to the ongoing threat of IAS, the international community has set the Aichi Biodiversity Target 9 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 2010) to ensure that measures to prevent the introduction and establishment of IAS should be in place for all signatories by 2020. \"Invasive species\"they may not sound very threatening, but these invaders, large and small, have devastating effects on wildlife. Posted: Dec 18, 2020 / 10:55 PM EST / Updated: Dec 18, 2020 / 10:56 PM EST. Results (excluding overseas territories) ranged from See additional information for Figs. Missouri enacted HB 6, which appropriates money to the Fisher Delta Research Center in order to fund a public-private partnership for the control of Asian carp in Missouri. In response, the state of Michigan filed a lawsuit with the U.S. Supreme Court asking for the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal to be immediately closed. This does not necessarily imply that New World species have a lower invasion potential than Old World species, as suggested by di Castri (1989), but rather that species immigration rates have historically been greater towards the New World (Lonsdale, 1999). As its name suggests, the emerald ash borer infests ash trees, killing them within one to four years. Second, for visualization, global maps were produced to show SInv, SNat, Κ and the number of international treaties (NIT). Overall, IAS type (number of countries where recorded) was: terrestrial plants (236 countries), arthropods (217), aquatic plants (110), mammals (147), fish (146), birds (82), reptiles (53) and amphibians (53). Appropriate uses of EICAT protocol, data and classifications. The status and potential distribution of Hydrocotyle umbellata L. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. (1) in main text) the # of international treaties per country (based on ECOLEX, 2016), and the number of IAS per country SInv) divided by that country's land area (A) in km2. DEC received 96 application and awarded approximately $2.8 million from the New York State Environmental Protection Fund (EPF) to 42 projects.$594,464.38 was awarded to eight Aquatic Invasive Species Spread Prevention projects. Further analysis of our results indicated that intentional introduction of species for environmental management such as land reclamation and erosion control accounted for 8% of introductions and also requires attention. Human activities are considered to be the most common ways invasive organisms are transported to new habitats. This rapid reproduction contributes to the speed with which they can spread. According to the seminal paper by David Pimentel, Lori Lach, Rodolfo Zuniga, and Doug Morrison, the economic damages associated with invasive species in the U.S. exceeds $120 billion per year. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. 2): SNat > 126 in 36% of the 55 countries (excluding overseas territories) in the Europe region, 18% of the 61 Asia Pacific countries and 13% of the 52 Latin America plus Caribbean countries; SNat < 56 in 55% of 58 of the African countries. Native to Eastern Europe, such mussels were first discovered in North America in the late 1980s in the Great Lakes, transported in the ballast water of ships. 1(b), 61 (80%) of the 76 small islands with recorded IAS and A < 20,000 km2, had >0.01 species per km2. IAS per country (median 24, mean 55 IAS per country). S6 gives the cumulative number of global national/sub‐national legislations/regulations relevant to IAS for 1980 − 2015 (a total of 342 pieces of legislation/regulation; relevance score > 0). Data from CABI ISC (2016) and GISD (2016). Invasive species on the watch list have been identified as posing an immediate or potential threat to Michigan's economy, environment or human health. Figure 5(b) shows the maximum relevance score for those countries with one or more national/sub‐national pieces of legislation/regulations. The total number of IAS with native range information recorded in the two databases (S NatT) is 1140. Robert A. Francis is a geographer and ecologist with interests in human–environment interactions, particularly in relation to urban and freshwater ecosystems and invasive alien species. Data from ECOLEX database (2016). Regulation (EU) 1143/2014 on invasive alien species(the IAS Regulation) entered into force on 1 January 2015, fulfilling Action 16 of Target 5 of the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy,as well as Aichi Target 9 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020under the Convention of Biological Diversity. What can individuals do to curb the spread of invasive species? Similar trends are observable in the five central Asian countries, which have relatively low numbers of recorded IAS (4 < SInv < 13) (Fig. Since non-native plants have few controls in their new habitat, they spread rapidly. Functional feeding traits as predictors of invasive success of alien freshwater fish species using a food-fish model. As might be expected, those countries with greater numbers of IAS have more targeted regulations/legislation specifically dealing with IAS, with a maximum relevance score ≥3 (Fig. To aid visualization of smaller land areas, circles represent countries with We thank Shyama Pagad from the IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) for providing us with the data from the Global Invasive Species Database. S2–S5 on p.3 for more detailed information on the chord diagrams and for introduction pathway abbreviations. , where Top offenders include the Asian longhorned beetle, Asian citrus psyllid, brown marmorated stink bug, European gypsy moth and emerald ash borer. Bolded are the ten countries with the highest number of recorded IAS (ranked 1 to 10); these are also given in Table 2 of the main text. The five territories with the lowest Κ (−5.6 ≤ Κ ≤ −5.4) are Mongolia, Afghanistan, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan. While the danger that Asian carp, zebra mussels and other aquatic invasive species pose are fairly well-known, non-native plants, insects, reptiles and mammals can also be highly destructive. 4b (4d)) for each identified introduction pathway. the USA, Australia, New Zealand) have a medium to high positive asymmetry index See the top management priorities. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Manipulation of cytosine methylation does not remove latitudinal clines in two invasive goldenrod species in Central Europe. Carp were introduced to U.S. waters either accidentally, as byproducts of other carp stock, or as a means of phytoplankton control for aquaculture purposes. The bars are in descending order of number of species from top to bottom (see legend) with the category “other” includes the following organism types: alga, annelid, flatworm, fungus, micro‐organism, mollusc, nematode, oomycete, parasites and virus. . Tel: 202-624-5400 | Fax: 202-737-1069, Research, Editorial, Legal and Committee Staff, E-Learning | Staff Professional Development, Communications, Financial Services and Interstate Commerce, Copyright 2021 by National Conference of State Legislatures. Substrate mediated predator–prey interactions between invasive crayfish and indigenous and non-native amphipods. The IAS Regulation provides for a set of measures to b… Total number of recorded IAS in the databases; Number of species native to a country but invasive elsewhere. States have also created funds to implement programs aimed at combating the spread of Asian carp. Using chord diagrams to visualize relationships between IAS, introduction pathway and geographical regions, Fig. This is partly due to bias in species records (Pyšek et al., 2008), difficulties in generating adequate data (because data quality varies) (EEA, 2012) and high uncertainty in the information on species pathways (Hulme, 2015). is the number of species native in a country but invasive elsewhere (SNat) divided by the total number of recorded IAS in the databases for which information about invasive native range was available They can also cause significant economic impacts. This paper (1) provides a visualization of global geographical patterns of species invasions, their origin and pathways of introduction using global databases and (2) depicts the international uptake of legislative and policy responses to IAS. Global distribution patterns provide evidence of niche shift by the introduced African dung beetle Digitonthophagus gazella. Now, two Milwaukee Labrador retrievers, Ernie, and Betty White, are using their schnozzes to search for New Zealand mud snails, an invasive species … Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that U.S. agricultural production loses $13 billion/year from invasive insects alone. The IAS records extracted from the combined GISD (2016) and CABI ISC (2016) databases, utilizing the criteria given above, spanned 243 countries and overseas territories, with 1517 different species represented. Several indicators and mapping efforts have been developed to aid the realization of Target 9, but these are somewhat limited by the geographical focus of reporting countries. The geographical regions used are the seven UNEP (2012) GEO regions: Africa, Asia plus Pacific, Europe, Latin America plus the Caribbean, North America, West Asia and the Polar Regions. However, listing what species are non-native in an area helps measure Essential Biodiversity Variables for invasive species monitoring and mount an effective response to established non-native species. At least 47 states maintain a list of plants considered legally “noxious,” a term used interchangeably with invasive. You consent to the use of cookies if you use this website. These results emphasize the role of trade in the introduction and spread of IAS, stressing not only the need for policy‐makers to work with industries but also, as suggested by Hulme (2015), the need to educate citizens. Non-native insects have no predators in their new home and the trees have no natural defenses against them. 3), despite extensive colonization of Africa by European countries. In this section we discuss the methods used to: (1) compile and clean IAS data and legal instruments associated with IAS, including international treaties, national/subnational legislations and regulations, and (2) analyse the data. (2010) developed global process indicators to monitor Target 9 which report on the number of documented alien species per country and trends in the impacts of IAS on biodiversity, international agreements and national policy responses. Such invasive species can be introduced intentionally as crops, livestock, sport fish or pets, or unintentionally, such as by “hitchhiking” on ships. Zebra mussels, on the other hand, attach to virtually any stable substrate or surface. A list of the abbreviations and variables used in this paper is given in Table 1. Many species that are invasive elsewhere are native to the USA, but a greater number of species have invaded the USA – resulting in positive Κ – partly due to the rapid influx of global populations and trade (Work et al., 2005). Are priority areas for future IAS research and control includes ‘ alien species ’ in document keywords, which the... Distribution, status and potential distribution of invasive plants displace native species, the. Of which 12 have global applications and 18 regional 7 billion trees are risk. And Salvinia auriculata Aubl trouble: the interaction of global geographical patterns of discovery points and invasion hotspots alien. Threatened terrestrial species richness “ noxious, ” a term used interchangeably with invasive Court of Appeals rejected... Below are a growing problem in the past few years, the Netherlands and Germany each with,... Countries that have high numbers of species invasions 's scope is global and includes. 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Transport can increase species invasiveness in a water‐limited catchment, South Africa damage or crop losses, normal!